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ECTS – NQF-HETR Info Package


Gebze Technical University ECTS – NQF-HETR Info Package covers works done under National Qualifications Framework in Turkey and European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System.

What is NQF-HETR?


National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Turkey (NQF-HETR) covers works done on the national basis about the development of national qualifications framework for higher education. The framework mentioned is the one that is guaranteed to be completed by Bologna Process countries in an effort to increase the transparency, recognition and mobility in higher education systems of these countries in accordance with the objectives of Lisbon Strategy published in 2000 by European Union (EU) and with the objectives of Bologna Process in which our country was included as a member in 2001.

Qualifications for higher education mean what a person achieving any higher education degree is supposed to know, do and be competent about.

National Qualifications Framework, on the other side, expresses the qualifications for a national educational system and the relation between these. In other words, National Qualifications Framework is a system in which qualifications, which are recognized by national and international stakeholders and can be related, are structured within a certain organization. Through this system, all the qualifications for the higher education and the other learning outcomes can be explained and related to each other consistently. The degree to which qualifications are gained is measured objectively at the end of each lesson/module as "learning outcomes".

What is ECTS ?


The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System is a student-centered system based on the student workload required to achieve the objectives of a program, objectives preferably specified in terms of learning outcomes and competences to be acquired.


How did ECTS develop ?


ECTS was introduced in 1989, in the framework of Erasmus, now part of the Socrates program. ECTS is the only credit system which has been successfully tested and used across Europe. ECTS was set up initially for credit transfer. The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus enhanced the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently ECTS is developing into an accumulation system to be implemented at regional, national and European level. This is one of the key objectives of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999.


Why introduce ECTS ?


ECTS makes study programs easy to read and compare for all students, local and foreign. ECTS facilitates mobility and academic recognition. ECTS helps universities to organize and revise their study programs. ECTS can be used across a variety of programs and modes of delivery. ECTS makes European higher education more attractive for students from other continents. What are the key features of ECTS?


  • ECTS is based on the principle that 60 credits measure the workload of a full time student during one academic year. The student workload of a full time study program in Europe amounts in most cases to around 1500 to1800 per year, and in those cases one credit stands for 25 to 30 working hours.
  • The allocation of ECTS credits is based on the official length of a study program cycle. The total workload necessary to obtain a first cycle degree lasting officially three or four years is expressed as 180 or 240 credits. Student workload in ECTS includes the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, independent study, preparation for and taking of examinations, etc.
  • Credits are allocated to all educational components of a study program (such as modules, courses, placements, dissertation work, etc.) and reflect the quantity of work each component requires in relation to the total quantity of work necessary to complete a full year of study in the program considered.
  • Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after completion of the work required and appropriate assessment of the learning outcomes achieved.
  • The performance of the student is documented by a local/national grade and - according to good practice - by an ECTS grade. The ECTS grading scale ranks the students on a statistical basis. Therefore, elaboration of statistical data on student performance is a prerequisite for applying the ECTS grading system. Examination and assessment results are usually expressed in grades.

There are many different grading systems in Europe. To help institutions translate the grades awarded by host institutions to ECTS students, the ECTS grading scale has been developed. This provides additional information on the student's performance to that provided by the institution's grade, but does not replace the local grade. Higher education institutions make their own decisions on how to apply the ECTS grading scale to their own system.

ECTS grade Percentage of successful students normally achieving the grade Definition
A 10 EXCELLENT - outstanding performance with only minor errors
B 25 VERY GOOD -above the average standard but with some errors
C 30 GOOD -generally sound work with a number of notable errors
D 25 SATISFACTORY- fair but with significant shortcomings
E 10 SUFFICIENT - performance meets the minimum criteria
FX - FAIL- some more work required before the credit can be awarded
F - FAIL- considerable further work is required

A distinction is made between the grades FX and F that are used for unsuccessful students. FX means: "fail- some more work required to pass" and F means: "fail - considerable further work required". The inclusion of failure rates in the Transcript of Records is optional.


What are the key documents of ECTS?


  • The regular Information Package/Course Catalogue of the institution to be published in two languages (or only in English for programs taught in English) on the Web and/or in hard copy. The Information Package/Course Catalogue must contain the items of the checklist attached to ECTS Users’ Guide, including information for host students from abroad.
  • The Learning Agreement contains the list of courses to be taken with the ECTS credits which will be awarded for each course. This list must be agreed upon by the student and the responsible academic bodies of the two institutions concerned. It is agreed upon before the student's departure and updated immediately when changes occur.
  • The Transcript of Records documents the performance of a student by showing the list of courses taken, the credits gained as well as the local grades and ECTS grades awarded. It is issued by the home institution for outgoing students before departure and by the host institution for incoming students at the end of their period of study.

For further information, please visit European Commission’s official web site by clicking on the following link